Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Kanakadurga temple

Name of the Temple

  • Kanaka Dhurgā Temple


  • Vijayawāḍa, Āndhra Pradeśh. The temple is located on the Indhrakīlādhri hill, on the banks of Kriṣhṇa River.
How to reach there?
  • By air : The nearest airport is Vijayawāḍā airport located in Gannāvaram, about 20 km away from Kanakadhurgā. From the airport take the National Highway 5 to Vijayawāḍā.
  • By train : The nearest railway station is located in Vijayawāḍā itself. The railway station is about 8 km away from Kanakadhurgā. Take the National Highway 9 from the Vijayawāḍā railway station to reach Kanakadhurgā temple.
  • By road : Kanakadhurgā is located in Vijayawāḍā and the latter is connected by good roads with all the places within the state. Two National Highways, the National Highway 5 from Chennai to Kolkāthā and the National Highway 9 from Machilipaṭnam to Haidherabādh pass through the city connecting it to other parts of the country.

Rulers/builders and Time Period

  • Goddess Kanaka Dhurgā manifested herself (Swayambhu) on the hillock known as Indhrakīlādhri situated on the left bank of River Kriṣhṇa at Vijayawāḍā.  
  • The origin of this shrine is known to be of 8 th century.
  • The temple was constructed during the regime of Moghal rulers. According to Sthalapurāṇam, Moghal Ruler Thanisha with the assistance of his Ministers Akkaṇṇa and Mādhaṇṇa managed the temple with head quarters at Konḍapaḷḷi.


  • Kanaka Dhurgā

Architecture Style

  • At the Kanakadhurgā temple, the enchanting 4-foot-high (1.2 m) icon of the deity is bedecked in glittering ornaments and bright flowers.
  • She has eight arms, each holding a powerful weapon, and is in a standing posture over the demon Mahiṣhāshura and piercing him with her trident.
  • The goddess is the epitome of beauty. Adjacent to the Kanakadhurgā temple is the shrine of Malleśhwara Swāmi on the Indhrakilādhri.
  • By ascending the steps on the hill, one comes across little images of different deities; prominent among them are Kāḷi, Śhiva, and Kriṣhṇa.
  • This is the place where Arjuna obtained the Pāśhupatha Asthra after his great penance for Lord Śhiva. The temple was constructed for Goddess Dhurgā by Arjuna. It is connected by steps and a ghāṭ road.

Other Special Features

  • Sage Indhrakila practiced severe penance and when the goddess appeared the sage pleaded Her to reside on his head and keep vigil on the wicked demons. As per his wishes of killing the demons, Goddess Dhurgā made Indhrakila Her permanent abode.
  • One of the many mythologies associated with this place is that Arjuna prayed to Lord Śhiva on top of Indhrakilādhri to win His blessings and the city derived its name "Vijayawāḍa" after this victory.
  • Another popular legend is about the triumph of goddess Kanakadhurgā over the demon King Mahiṣhāsura. It is said that the growing menace of demons became unbearable for the natives. She slayed the demon king Mahiṣhāsura freeing the people of Vijayawāḍa from evil.

Any Other/Remarks

  • Inscriptions of different dynasties are found in the temple. Special pūjās are performed during Dasarā (also called Navarāthri).
  • The most significant are Saraswathi pūjā and Theppotsavam.
  • The festival of Dasarā for Goddess Durghā is celebrated here every year.
  • A large number of pilgrims attend the colourful celebrations and take a holy dip in the Kriṣhṇa river.
  • Ādhi Śhankarāchārya) visited this temple during 8th century and worshipped the deity and installed “ŚHRĪCHAKRAM” at the feet of Goddess.

Special References

  • Kanaka Durghā Temple is synonymous with Vijayawāḍa. It is mentioned in the sacred texts.
  • Kāḷikā purāṇa, Dhurgā sapthaśhathi and other Vedhic literature have mentioned about Goddess Kanaka Dhurgā on the Indhrakila and have described the deity as Swayambhu, (self-manifested) in Thruthīya kalpa.
  • The temple occupies an important place in the scriptures as several of the Śhiva-līlās and Śhakthi-mahimās were enacted on or around it, making the region a place of unequalled spiritual significance and attracting pilgrims since times immemorial.
  • It is mentioned in the Vedhas that the deity in the Kanakadhurgā temple is regarded as 'Swayambhu' or self-manifested, hence considered very powerful.


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