Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Kaviyoor Mahadeva Temple

Name of the Temple

  • Kaviyūr Mahadheva Temple Also known as Thrikkaviyūr Mahādheva Temple. Besides, it is also referred by the names of Hanumān Temple and Śhrī Pārvathi Temple.


  • Thiruvalla District, Patthanamthiṭṭa, Keraḷa
How to reach there?
  • By Air: Both the Thiruvananthapuram International Airport and Kochi International Airport are of equal distance from Kaviyūr, around 100 km. From Thiruvananthapuram International Airport take the National Highway 66 north. From Kochi International Airport take the National Highway 66 south.
  • By Train: Thiruvella railway station is around 9 km away. Take from there the State Highway 7 east.
  • By Road : Kaviyūr is connected by the State Highway 1 from Puthuvely to Kottarakkara, SH7 from Thiruvalla to Kumbazha and SH9 from Pampāḍi to Pullāḍu.

Rulers/builders and Time Period

  • Kaviyūr Mahādheva Temple is a uniquely structured temple. It is considered to be built in the early years of the 10th century, dating back over 1000 years. Kaviyūr Śhāsanas of 950 AD has references of the offerings given to this temple.
  • However, there is no special story or exact dates for the construction of the temple. Two dates - 950-951 AD have been written in the basement of its main sanctum, which depicts that it is one of the oldest Hindhu temples in Keraḷa.
  • The opinion of its oldness has been given by many historians, in which Stella Kramrich calls Kaviyūr Mahadheva Temple as one of the first structural temples of Keraḷa.
  • But the actual time of construction is not known, like any other old temples. Certainly, this temple belongs to the oldest period of structural temples.


  • Lord Mahādheva & Pārvathi. The main idol is not Śhiva, but Sāmbaśhiva, that is, Śhiva with consort Amba (Pārvathi)-as is evident from the 'mūladhyānam', the main invocation manthra.
  • Lord Viṣhṇu is also worshipped here. It is one of the popular temples, under Thiruvalla Group of Temples.

Architecture Style

  • Kaviyūr Mahadhevar Temple with a distinctive style of architecture is regarded as one of the oldest Mahadheva temples of Keraḷa. Standing tall on a small hillock, the gable style of architecture brings the temple into limelight.
  • Built in a typical Keraḷa style of architecture and exuding optimum architectural grandeur, it features a circular Śhrīkovil with Sandhara style, copper capped roof, golden flag mast and 18 steps at the eastern entry.
  • Various parts of the beautiful temple are adorned with wooden carvings. It is believed that the holy icons established in the temple belong to late sixteenth or early seventeenth century.

Special Reference to Fine Arts

  • The balikalpura, vāthilmāḍam, namaskāra manḍapam and śhrīkovil( sanctum) of this temple are decorated with wood carvings. These sculptures belong to late sixteenth or early seventeenth century. These carvings are based on purāṇic texts like Mahābhāratha and Rāmāyaṇa.
  • The wood work of this temple was done by local sculptors, belonging to Thekkethil family. Each and every part of this temple radiates architectural splendor. All the 44 Rafter shoes of the main Prakāra is covered with beautifully crafted rafter shoes.
  • The 24 rafters of the Namaskāra Manḍapam were also covered with rafter shoes, but these pieces are now missing.
  • The "DHĀRUŚHILPAS"(wood sculpture) seen around the temple belong to the 17th century when the temple was rebuilt/renovated. The wood carvings on the outer wall of the sanctum sanctorum, inner roof of Balickalpura and Namaskāra Maṇḍapam are excellent.
  • The Temple has a huge collection of precious ornaments which also shows the artistic excellence of the sculptors of Kaviyūr. These include Swarṇa prabhāmaṇḍalam, Golden Netthiippaṭṭams, Golden pots, Golden Reliefs of Deities, Golden Umbrellas, Golden Chains and Several materials with precious gems.

Other Special Features

  • The specialty of the temple is that prayers for Śhrī Pārvathi are performed only for 12 days in a year, while Lord Śhiva is worshipped on a daily basis.
  • Plus, the temple is famous for Māṅgalya pūjā, wherein people visiting and offering prayers regularly are believed to be blessed with good potential mates.

Any Other/Remarks

  • The similar Construction of such temple can be found near Āluva, called Thiruvairaṇikuḷam Pārvathi temple.
  • Similarity can be reviewed as both temple having Lord Śhiva as the main idol and behind the temple there is the idol of Pārvathi.


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