Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English


Name of the Temple

  • Suchīndram Thānumālayan temple.


  • Enroute from Nāgarkoil to Kanyākumari, Tamilnadu.
How to reach there?
  • By Air : The nearest airport is Thiruvananthapuram International Airport. The airport is located 83 km north-west to Suchīndram on the National Highway 66.
  • By Train : Nāgārkovil railway station is the nearest. It is located 4 km north-west of Suchīndram.
  • By Road: Suchīndram is connected by the National Highway 66 from Kanyākumari to Panvel.

Rulers/builders and Time Period

  • 9th Century AD .


  • The name Thānumālayan denotes the combination of the Trimūrthis. Sthānu is a synonym for Śhiva, Māl for Viṣhṇu and Ayan for Brahma. It is believed that the top, middle and base of the Linga in the temple represent Śhiva, Viṣhṇu and Brahma respectively.

Architecture Style

  • Carved exquisitely out of a single block of granite, the imposing figure of Ānjaneya, 18 feet height, is a product of marvellous sculptural skill.
  • The gigantic image of Nandhi locally known as "Mākāḷai" made of chalk powder is considered one of the biggest bull statues in India. 

Special Reference to Fine Arts

  • The Thānumālayan temple is a repository of art treasures and of sculptures. Musical pillars and the huge Hanūmān statue are proof of the artistic skill of the time.
  • The Stone Pillars of the temples can make the basic rhythm of Carnātic Music and these musical pillars are very impressive.
  • The temple here is noted for its exquisite workmanship in stone and some of the sculptures in the temple like Vigneśhwari, the female form of Vināyaka and the scene of Gīthopadheśha of Pārthasārathi in the form of Trinity are rare and cannot be found elsewhere.

Other Special Features

  • The specialty of the Suchīndram Thānumālaya temple is that, this is the temple where all the three prime Gods - the Thrimūrthi - (Lord Śhiva, Lord Viṣhṇu and Lord Brahma) are found in one shrine.
  • Tradition goes that Indhra was purified at this place and hence the name, Suchīndram. Suchi means Purity. Thānumālaya Swamy Temple is unique and stands proudly for the unity of Śhaiva & Vaiṣhṇava sections of Hinduism.

Any Other/Remarks

  • In Suchīndram, Brahma is being worshipped in the form of Śhivalingam.

Special Reference to Performing Arts:

  • The Ānjaneya Kruthis are composed by Muthuswāmi Dīkṣhithar are listed down.


Größere Kartenansicht


Contact Us