Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Thousand Pillar temple

Name of the Temple

  • The Thousand Pillar Temple


  • Wārangal City , Āndhra Pradeśh
How to reach there?
  • By Air: The closest airport to this place is located in Haidherabādh, around 170 km from Wārāngal. From the airport take the National Highway 202 north-east to reach the temple.
  • By Train : The nearest railway station is located in Wārāngal, 6 km from Thousand pillar temple. From the railway station take the State Highway 240 north to reach the temple.
  • By Road: Thousand Pillar temple is located in Hanumakonḍa, a place about 10 km from Wārāngal. Wārāngal is 145 km northeast of the state capital of Haidherabādh. It is connected through the National Highway 202 from Haidherabādh to Bhopālapaṭnam and the State Highway 240 from Wārāngal to Kodad.

Rulers/builders and Time Period

  • The Thousand Pillar Temple is one of the very old temples of South India built by the Kākathiyas of Chāḷukya dynasty and this stands out to be a masterpiece and achieved major heights in terms of architectural skills by the ancient Kākathiya viśhwakarma sthapathis.
  • It is believed that the marvelous thousand pillared temple was built by King Rudhra Dheva in 1163 A. It was destroyed by the Mughal Empires during their invasion of South India .
  • It comprises one temple and other building. There are one thousand pillars in the building and the temple, but one pillar will not obstruct another from any point of the temple to see the god in the other temple.
  • The temple was built by King Rudhra Dheva in the 12th century (1163 A.D.). Dedicated to Lord Śhiva, Lord Viṣhṇu and Lord Sūrya, one thousand richly carved pillars and a magnificent black basalt Nandhi bull are the main attractions here.


  • Lord Śhiva
  • Lord Viṣhṇu
  • Lord Sūrya

Architecture Style

  • Built in the shape of a star, the temple is raised on a 1 metre high platform on the slopes of the Hanumakonḍa hill.
  • Many small lingam shrines surround the gardens of this shrine.

Other Special Features

  • The pillars that support the central ‘Nāṭya Manṭapam’ (dance floor) are large and made of multiple blocks of stone.
  • When you hear “Veyyi Sthambalu” (thousand pillars) you imagine a large no. of pillars.

Any Other/Remarks

  • Kākathiyas, worshipers of Lord Śhiva, wanted early morning sun rays to fall directly on Shiva Lingam. So, of the three shrines, Śhiva’s shrine faces east and other shrines face south and west. On the fourth side is Nandhi. Adding to the uniqueness, the Nandhi in 1000 pillar temple looks east, unlike most Nandhis in Indian temples that look west.


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