Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Sankhya Viśhiṣhṭa 1

Significance of Number One

Numeral 1 References Brief explanation
Eko Viṣhṇu Eko Viṣhṇur Mahadbhūtham Lord Viṣhṇu is referred to as the sole sustenance of the world here.  
Eko nārāyaṇaha Nārāyaṇa is ONE Nārāyaṇa is another name for Lord Viṣhṇu. His followers believe that He is the only protector of everyone in the Universe.  
Ekapādha Literally translated, it means – One foot or the one who has just one foot.

The reference is to Lord Viṣhṇu’s fifth incarnation, known as the Vāmana Avathāra.

It is also to Lord Śhiva as he stands on one foot in a dance pose.
In his incarnation as a dwarfed Brahmin, Lord Viṣhṇu asked for three paces of land from King Bali as donation. When Bali promised him the same, He assumed his gigantic form and measured Heaven and Earth with two paces. The last pace was when he lifted one foot (Ekapādha) and queried as to where He could place it, for which the noble king Bali bowed down and offered his head as the place.

Lord Śhiva danced to the request of his devotees in the pilgrimage centre of Chidhamabaram in Thamizh Nāḍu. He is said to have danced having lifted one leg high and being based on one foot (Ekapādha).  
Ekāthma Viṣhṇu is the Solitary Unique Soul.   Lord Viṣhṇu is the protector amongst the Hindhu divine male trinity. Here, the reference is to Him being the creator also.  
Ekadhantha Literally translated, it means – Single tooth or the one who has just one tooth. It is an adjective of Lord Gaṇapathi. Legend has it that Gaṇapathi was approached by Vyāsa to be his scribe for the epic Mahābhāratha. He is then said to have broken one of his tusks and uses it as the pen to write the script.  
Ekāk ṣ hara Manthra Parabrahma Svarūpa - Om Ithyekākṣharam The form of the Supreme Self- The hymn with the single syllable. The syllable OM is said to represent not only the letter and sound but also Supreme self. It is enough if one chants just Om to attain the highest state of bliss is the common understanding.  
Ekachakradhhara One who has the one wheeled chariot (known as Rathham in Samskruth) It is an epithet of the Sun god, Sūrya. This is an imagery which describes the movement of the Sun and also the concept of Time. The Sun god is imagined to be travelling on a chariot with one wheel which is known as the Kāla Chakra, the wheel of Time.  
Ekāmra Ekāmreśhvara means the Lord of the single Mango tree In South India , temples were constructed at places where certain trees were considered as the home of a particular deity.

Later these trees became Sthhalavrukṣhas or the sacred tree connected with that particular place where it is still worshipped.

The famous Ekāmreśhvara temple in the temple-town of Kānchipuram (Thamizh Nāḍu) has the mango tree as the Sthhalavrukṣha.

Goddess Pārvathi is said to have worshipped Śhiva in the form of a liṅga beneath this tree and was reunited with Him.

A very ancient sculpture inside this temple depicts this scene with the mango tree sculpted in detail.  
Ekākṣha The Crow; The one eyed one; Reference here is to the story of Jayantha, Indhra's Son   Once Jayantha, the son of Indhra, the king of Heaven took the form of a crow. He troubled Sīthā and an annoyed Rāma poked the bird’s eyes blinding him in one. From then the crow also is referred to as the single eyed one.  
Eka Pathni Vratha Rāma The prince of Ayodhya, an ancient Indian country was idolized amongst other things for his monogamy. That ruler is Rāma, who is also elevated to be the sixth incarnation of Lord Viṣhṇu. He stood committed to Sīthā, his noble wife.  
Ekanāḍi Having the same Nāḍi, which in the astrological context is a point to be matched between the bride and the groom amongst many such, leads to faults in the match. In India , the matching of the natal charts for Marriage between two people is almost mandatory till date.

Nadi Dhoṣha (Faults in the match of Nāḍi) exists if proposed husband and wife have the same Nāḍi.  
Ekodhara Single Child   Eka meaning One and Udhara meaning the stomach and in this context, the womb, this adjective is for the Single child.
Ekānu Ekāṇujīvi- Unicellular Organism. Eka – one; aṇu –cell; jīvi – with life;     The ancient Indians termed all organisms by their birth origin in the early ages itself displaying their command in the scientific area too.  
Eka chakrādhhipathi Literal meaning – the owner of the single wheel. To be understood as the Unchallenged Sole Emperor It is believed that Kings became Emperors when they brought many other Kings under them by winning wars, concluding treaties etc. This emperor remains unchallenged for supremacy and the wheel is the symbol of his success.  
Ekabhukthā He who takes a single meal a Day There are many even now in India who for spiritual reasons contain their intake to one meal a day. This epithet signifies them.  
Ekāha 11th day of the Death Ceremony In traditional Hindhu families, on the death of a person, various rites prescribed in the ancient texts are followed strictly. These extend up to 14 or 16 days. Amongst them the 11th day is called Ekāha and remains significant in the ceremony process as it contains many rites in one day ( Ekāha).  


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