Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English


Ramadhān is one of the two Īdh festivals in the Islāmic year (the other being Īdh ul-Adhā). It is also known as the little or small feast (Bāyram- originated from Turkish language). It falls on the first day of Śhawwal at the completion of Ramadhān month and it begins with the sighting of moon. There may be regional differences in the exact date of Īdh with some Muslims fasting for 29 days or 30 days. The day breaks the month long fast with a sweet or snack, as they have abstained from food and drink from dawn till dusk to mark the occasion.

People wear new clothes and get ready to attend the special Īdh prayer performed in mosques. Before the prayer, the worshippers recite the Takbīr which means that the God is greatest, there is no God but one God and all praise goes to him. This is recited after the morning prayer (Fajr) and is continued till the Īdh prayer is commenced. Before the Īdh prayer is begun, it is mandatory that every Muslim (men, women, child) must lend helping hands to the poor (Zakath al fithr) and it equates about two kilograms of basic foodstuff (wheat, barley, dates, raisins, etc.), or its cash equivalent and is (typically) collected at the mosque. Then, the same is distributed to the needy to mark the occasion. It can be done anytime during the Ramadhān month. The Islāmic tradition says that every Muslim must contribute 2.5% of his wealth to charity during this festival. The Īdh prayer is followed by khuthbā (sermon) and then a prayer asking for forgiveness, mercy and help for the well being of Muslims all over the world. It is then customary to embrace the persons sitting on either of their sides as well as relatives, friends and other acquaintances.

Gifts and money are offered to women and children by their loved ones. It is also the time for resolving disputes and feuds between families and relatives. In Indonesia, the feast is named Īdh ulFithri which is celebrated with friends and relatives in their respective home towns with great pomp and fun in all the places. Another name for this period of celebrating and visiting is Lebaran, often lasting four to five days. In Malaysia & Singapore, it is commonly known as Hari Raya Aidh ul fithri.



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