Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Ganesh Chaturthi

Ganeśh Chathurthhi is celebrated as the birthday of Lord Ganeśha who is believed to bestow his presence on earth to bless his devotees on this occasion. The festival is also referred as Vināyaka Chathurthhior Vināyaka Chauthi in Sanskrit, Tamil, Kannada and Telugu. It falls in the month of Bhādrapadha (Hindhu calendar), starting on the Śhukla Chathurthhi (fourth day of the waxing moon period) which might be sometime between August 20 and September 15 every year.

The festival is celebrated with great fervour by the Hindhus all over India and one can witness the height of its celebrations in Mahārāṣhtra, Gujarāth, Karṇāṭaka and Āndhra Pradeśh, and other areas which were former states of the Marāṭha Empire, also Newars in Nepāl celebrate this festival.

Traditional Hindhu stories convey that Lord Ganeśha was given life by Goddess Pārvathi, (consort of Lord Śhiva) out of the sandalwood paste which she used for bathing. She set him as a guard at her door when she bathed. At that time, Lord Śhiva was about to enter and Ganeśha did not permit him to do so. Lord Śhiva was enraged and he chopped the head of Ganeśha and later he realized that he had beheaded his own son. Hence he replaced Ganeśha’s head with an elephant’s head. Lord Ganeśha is worshipped as the supreme god of wisdom, prosperity and good fortune.

On the occasion, beautifully sculptured Ganeśha’s idol is decorated with garlands and placed for worship in colourful houses and manṭapas (Panḍāls). The worship lasts for an odd number of days (from 1 to 11 days, sometimes 13). An exclusive sweet dish called modhaka (made of rice flour stuffed with coconut, jaggery and some other condiments) is prepared to offer God. Also, another similar dish called karanji is prepared in the shape of the fourth day moon. This festival also provides a platform for the artists to exhibit their art pieces to the public. Public celebration, cultural programmes add colour to the festival.

There are five "Gaṇapathis of Honour." worshipped by the people of Puṇe in Mahārāṣhtra

  • First Gaṇapathi of Honour - Kasbā Gaṇapathi;
  • Second Gaṇapathi of Honour - Thambāḍi Jogeśhwari;
  • Third Gaṇapathi of Honour - Guruji Thālīm;
  • Fourth Gaṇapathi of Honour - Thulsibaug Gaṇapathi; and
  • Fifth Gaṇapathi of Honour - Kesariwāḍa Gaṇapathi.

Bhajans are sung during the prayers and Ārthis are performed. People visit friends and relatives to exchange greetings and happiness.


Contact Us