Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Sankhya Viśhiṣhṭa 0

Significance of number Zero

Numeral 0 References Brief explanation
Śhūnya The numeral 0 India 's great contribution
Śhūnya In Arithmetic 1+0, 1+00, 1+000, Etc... 01, 001, 0001 ...Etc...   In a sequence – where the numeral has Power In a sequence - where the numeral is Powerless
Śhūnya Mudhrā This is a pose or gesture in Yoga. In Samskuth, Śhūnya means Zero or Sky. Mudhr ā means gesture. Keep the middle finger at the mount of Venus and press it with thumb . Hold it for 40 to 60 minutes daily. This prevents and cures deafness, pain in the ears and other problems with hearing. 
Śhūnya with regards to the world Mahā Pralaya meaning dissolution of the universe. The final dissolution is equated to the concept of Śhūnya.
Śhūnya in the Upaniṣhads Pūrṇāth Pūrṇamidham Sarvam  

This is the whole because it came out of the whole- is the meaning of the above phrase taken from the invocation

“Om pūrṇamadhah pūrṇamidhaM pūrṇāth pūrṇamudhachyathe Pūrṇasya pūrṇamādhāya pūrṇamvāvaśhiṣhyathe” of Iśhāvāsyopaniṣhad, the first of the ten principal Upaniṣhads in Indian philosophy.
The Upaniṣhads are the philosophical treatises of the ancient Indians.

They reflect on all aspects of the individual life with the primary focus on one attaining the Self within.

In this context, the concept of zero as the whole is emphasized.
Śhūnya in creation According to Indian (Hindhu) Mythology, The Supreme Self created the universe from one ‘whole –complete entity’ and this is the Śhūnya. The revelation of Divinity and the Cosmic Egg from which arose all creation are attributed to Śhūnya in this context.  
Śhūnya in the hymns Vīraha Viṣhamaha Śhūnyo is part of one verse in the hymn Viṣhṇu Sahasranāmaha - A hymn of One thousand names of Lord Viṣhṇu   One of the names in this hymn is Śhūnya where the Lord is described as the personification of the Whole.


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