Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Someshwaraswamy temple

Name of the Temple

  • The temple is called Someśhwaraswāmi Ālayam and its Purāṇic name is Soma Rāmam.


  • The temple is located in Gunupūdi Bhīmāvaram, West Godavari district of Āndhrapradeśh in South India.
How to reach there?
  • By Air : The nearest airport is Bengalūru International Airport, around 70 km away. Take the National Highway 648 south-east and than the National Highway 75 east to Kōlār
  • By Train : The nearest railway station is located in Bangārapéṭ which is 15 km away from Kōlār. From Bangārapéṭ take the State Highway 5 north.
  • By Road : Kolār is located 68 km from the city of Bengalūru, on the Chennai-Bengalūru National Highway. It is well connected to almost all major cities and towns in Karnāṭaka and Āndhra Pradeśh.

Rulers/builders and Time Period




  • Bhīmāvaram is famous for the temple of Lord Śhiva that is about 1000 years.
  • This was endowed liberally by Bhīma, one of the enlightened rulers of the Chālukya dynasty, during 4th century.
  • Later during the Vīraśhaiva rulers of Vunḍi dynasty, the temple became popular when many additions were made and lured Bhakthas in unending streams.
  • The same town houses two more Śhivālayas with tall Śhivalingas built and patronized by Chālukyas in the tenth century and they are called Someśhwarālayam and Bhimeśhwarālayam. Their origin is recent when compared with one housing of the big Śhivalinga installed by Soma.


  • This sacred shrine is dedicated to Maheśhwara.
  • The face of Śhiva lingam in this temple is called Sathyojāthamukha Swarūpam.
  • The Śhiva lingam is called Someśhwara as it is believed that this lingam has been installed by Lord Chandhra.

Architecture Style

  • The temple faces east and has a high charming tower over the Mahādhwār.
  • The temple is two storied and enshrines Someśhwaralinga in the ground floor and the image of Mother Pārvathi in the first floor in the name of Annapūrṇa.
  • This Śhivalinga was installed by the Moon God-Soma. The crystal linga reflects the waning and waxing of Moon - i.e. appearing bright for fifteen days like the Moon and dim- in the next fortnight. On full moon days it appears white and on new moon days, brown and black.
  • Other uniqueness of this temple is that there is a temple of Goddess Annapūrṇa just above the Garbha Gruha of Someśhwara Swāmi, on the first floor.
  • In the main manṭapam, there are few steps that lead you to the temple of Annapurna on the first floor. You cannot see this feature in any of the temples in India.
  • Another interesting feature of this temple is that there are five Nandhis in front of the Śhiva Lingam unlike in other temples where you find only one or maximum two Nandhis.
  • The entrance of the temple is marked by a 15 feet tall pillar.
  • To the east of the main temple, there is a "Puṣhkariṇi" (sacred pond) called as "Soma Gunḍam" or "Chandhra Puṣhkariṇi" because it is believed to be created by the Moon God (Chandhrudu in Thelugu).

Other Special Features

  • This place is well known for the temple Soma Rāma which is considered as one of the Pancha Rāma temples.
  • The archamūrthi Śhivalinga is fairly a big one measuring about five feet in height.

Any Other/Remarks

  • The temple here is called Śhrī Someśhwara Janārdhana swāmi. It is one of the Pancha Rāmas sanctified by the falling of one of the five broken chips of Amruthalinga worn by Thārakāsura.

Special Reference to Performing Arts

  • Dikṣhithar composed Śhrī Pārthasārathi in Śhuddha dhanyāsi.
  • Nearby is the shrine dedicated to Lord Śhiva. Dikṣhithar paid his tribute to the Lord by composing Mārgasahāyeśhwaram in the Rāga Kāshirāmakriya, Maragathavalli in Khāmboji and Nīsāṭi daivamendul Edani Marulukonthira Thelugu Krithi on Śhiva.


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