Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Kukke Subrahmanya

Name of the Temple

  • Kukke Subrahmaṇya temple


  • This is situated in the banks of the river 'Dhāra' which originates in the Kumāra mountain in Sullia Taluk in South Karṇātaka , South India
How to reach there?
  • By Air: The nearest airport is the Mangaḷūru International Airport, at a distance of 115 km. From there take the State Highway 113 south-east to reach Kukke.
  • By Train : The nearest railway station is Nettana railway station 12 km from Kukke Subrahmaṇya. From the railway station take the State Highway 113 south.
  • By Road: Kukke Subrahmaṇya can be reached by the National Highway 75 from Mangaḷūru and Bengalūru, also through the State Highways 100 from Mukrumpaḍi to Subrahmaṇya, 113 from Guruvayankere to Subrahmaṇya and 114 from Guḍya to Subrahmaṇya.

Rulers/builders and Time Period

  • Kukke Subrahmaṇya is on the bank of river Dhāra. According to Hindu Mythology Lord Kumāraswāmi came to this place after killing the demon rulers Thāraka, Sūrapadhmāsura and others in a war; and the Lord washed his Śhakthi Āyudha (a battle-axe of the type of a  bayonet) in this river. From this onwards the river is famous as Kumāradhāra. After battle with the demon, Lord Kumāraswāmi came to the top of Kumāraparvatha along with his brothers Lord Ganeśha, Vīrabāhu and other aids.
  • He was received by Lord Indhra along with other Gods; pleased by the success of the war Indhra prayed the Lord to be Kind enough to marry his daughter Dhevasena. This was agreed upon courteously and the marriage took place on the banks of on ‘Margashira Shuddha Ṣhaṣhṭi’ (The ṣhaṣhṭi is on the first half of Mārgaśhira Māsa.) Kumāradhāra Lord Kumāraswāmi also gave a darśhan to Vāsuki, the head of the Nāgas, who was making a penance here. Vāsuki prayed the Lord to stay along with him permanently in the place and the Lord blessed Vāsuki with the boon.
  • The great Śhiva Bhaktha and Serpent king Vāsuki was performing thapas for years in the Biladhwāra caves of Kukke Subrahmaṇya to avoid the attack of Garuḍa. Following Lord Śhiva’s assurance Ṣhaṇmuka gave darśhan to Vāsuki and blessed him that he would stay with his parama bhaktha in this place forever.
  • Hence the pūjās offered to Vāsuki or Nāgarāja are nothing but the pūjās to Lord Subrahmaṇya.


  • Lord Subrahmaṇya is the main deity of Kukke Subrahmaṇya Temple . Subrahmaṇya used to be called as Kukke Paṭṭaṇa in the past.

Architecture Style

  • Between the sanctorum and the  portico  entrance, there is the Garuḍa  pillar covered with silver. It is believed that this pillar was charmed and planted there to shield devotees from the poisonous flames streaming from the breath of Vāsuki who resides inside.
  • Beyond the pillar is the outer hall, the inner hall, and then the sanctorum of Lord Subrahmaṇya. At the center of sanctorum is a pedestal.
  • On the upper  dais stands the deity of Subrahmaṇya  and the deity of Vāsuki and, at a somewhat lower level, the deity of Śheṣha . Ritual worship is offered to these deities every day.

Other Special Features

  • Sarpa Samskāra / Sarpa Doṣha is one of the pūjās performed by devotees at this temple to get rid of the sarpa doṣha (According to belief, a person, either in this birth or in any of his previous births, could be afflicted by the sarpa (serpent’s) doṣha (curse). Due to the widespread belief in the snake god in Tuḷunāḍu region of Karṇātaka and Keraḷa, this pūjā is performed by people of all faiths.

Special References

  • In the 'Śhankara Vijaya' Ānandhagiri observes that Śhrī Śhankarāchārya camped here for a few days during his religious expedition (Dhigvijaya).
  • Śhankarāchārya referred to this place as 'Bhaje Kukke Lingam' in his 'Subrahmaṇya Bhujaṅgaprayatha Sthothram'.
  • Śhrī Subrahmaṇya kṣhethra has been brilliantly described in the 'Thīrthakṣhethra Mahimaṇipurāṇa' chapter of the Sahyādhrikāṇḍa comprised in the Sanatkumāra Samhithā of Skandha Purāṇa.


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