Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English


Pradhośha pūjā is one of the most important among the pūjās performed to Lord Śhiva which falls in Śhukla Pakṣha (15 moon days from New moon to Full moon) and Kriṣhṇa Pakṣha (15 moon days from Full moon to New moon) the evening of the Thrayodaśhi (thirteenth moon day) between 4.30 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. It comes once in 15 days. It is believed that praying Lord Śhiva in this time would liberate us from all sins. Pradhoṣha purāṇa says that once Dhevas and Asuras churned the Kṣhīrābdhi (Milk Ocean) using the snake Vāsuki and the hill Mandhara for getting the nectar (Amrutha) .In the process, terrible poison (hālāhala) came up. Dhevas got frightened & pleaded Lord Śhiva for rescue. The lord was pleased with their prayers and drank the entire poison. Later, they succeeded in their efforts of attaining the nectar on a Dhwādhasi (twelfth moon day). They celebrated their success without thanking Lord Śhiva. The next day, they realized their blunder and sought Lord Śhiva’s forgiveness. Moved by his devotees, Lord Śhiva forgave them and danced between the horns of the Nandhi (holy bull) and that time was called Pradoṣham. It is believed that one can attain Mukthi when they pray Lord Śhiva at this time. During Pradhoṣham time anoint (Abhiśhekam) the Shiva deity with the following is considered fruitful.

  • Milk gives long life
  • Ghee gives Mokṣha state
  • Curd gives good children
  • Honey gives melodious voice
  • Rice powder frees from debts
  • Sugar cane juice gives good health
  • Panchāmrutham gives wealth
  • Lemon removes fear of death
  • Sugar removes enmity
  • Tender coconut gives enjoyment
  • Cooked Rice(Annam) gives majestic life
  • Sandal gives Lakṣhmi's grace
  • Bilvam and flowers can be given for Śhiva pūjā.


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