Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Kamakshi temple

Name of the Temple

  • Kāmakṣhi Temple 


  • Kānchipuram, near Chennai, Tamilnāḍu.
How to reach there?
  • By Air: The nearest airport is located in Chennai, 62 km. From the airport take the State Highway 48 heading west.
  • By Train : Kānchipuram railway station is just 2 km north of the temple.
  • By Road : Kānchipuram is connected through the National Highway 4 from Puṇe to Chennai.

Rulers/builders and Time Period

  • The temple was most probably built by the   Pallava   kings , whose capital was Kānchipuram , around 6 C . E .


  • Kamakṣhi, one of the forms of the goddess Pārvathi.

Architecture Style

  • Kāmākṣhi temple is situated at about 5 acres of land and has four entrances.
  • The main entrance Kānchi of the temple has a Kālabhairavar deity. On the centre of the entrance you can see a huge Dwajasthamba.
  • Moving further to the entrance of the Kāmākṣhi deity you can see a Vināyaka deity. Moving on a straight line further, Goddess Kāmākṣhi is visible. The Goddess also has Vārāhi, Arupalakṣhmi Kaḷvarperumāḷ (one of the 108 Dhivya Desam of Vaiṣhṇavities), Rūpalakṣhmi and Ardhhanāriśhwarar deities surrounding the sanctorum of Goddess on its Gāyathri Mantapam.
  • There is Santhānasthambam inside the prakāram of Goddess which is called the Nābhisthan of the Goddess. There is a Śhrīchakra Yanthra (Śhrī Kāmakoṭi Pītam) established by Jagadhguru Śri Ādhi Śhankaracharya in front of the Goddess deity. There is also a temple tank inside the premises

Other Special Features

  • Though there are many temples in this city with Shiva as the main deity, the only temple to have Kāmākṣh(Pārvathi) as the main the goddess is this.
  • There are 51 Śhakti Pīṭhas across the country. The goddess residing place in Kānchi is called as “Nābisthhāna Ottiyana Pīṭham”.
  • The Goddess is called as “Śhri Kāmākṣhi . The word is derived from the heritage “Kā” means Goddess Saraswathi (God of Education), “Mā” means Goddess Lakṣhmi (God of Wealth), “Akṣhi” means Eye. The name as a whole refers as the god lives in Kānchi with Goddess Saraswathi and Goddess Lakṣhmi as her both eyes.
  • The special occasions for the Goddess Kāmākṣhi are Navarāthri, Bhramothsavam and Pourṇami (Full Moon Day). The goddess is distinctively powerful in these times and it is even more auspicious to visit the temple in these days

Special Reference to Performing Arts

  • Sundaramūrthi Nāyanār, the Śhaiva saint of the 12th century is aware of the Kāmakoṭṭam. He in fact mentions that the Kāmakoṭṭam has come in existence just at that time. The history reveals us that King Daśharatha performed “Puthra Kāmeśhṭi Yāgam” in the temple and the extract of this story is visible in “Markanḍeya Purāṇam”.
  • To personify Kāmākṣhi, Ādhi Śhankarāchārya sung songs in the praise of goddess named “Soundarya Lahari” then he established a Śhrī Chakra in front of her idol to keep her cool and personified.
  • The temple was visited by a dumb devotee named “Mūkan”. The goddess provides him grace by freeing him from dumbness and he wrote a poetry named “Mūkapanchaśhathi” in which he praises entirely about the grace of the goddess with her beauty.
  • Gīrvaṇendhra Saraswathi describes precisely this swarūpa as Kāmeśhwari.
  • The most famous Swarajathis composed by Shyama shastri are on Kāmākṣhi. They are in Rāgas Thoḍi, Bhhairavi and Yadhukula kāmbodhi.
  • Muthuswāmi Dīkṣhithar lived in Kānchi for a few years. During that time, he composed several krithis on Kāmākṣhi. (listed down)




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