Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Virupaksha Temple

Name of the Temple

  • Virupākṣha Temple or Pampapathi Temple


  • This temple is located on the south bank, Hampi, of the river Thungabhadra Karṇātaka, South India
How to reach there?
  • By Air: Bellary Airport is the nearest domestic airports to reach Hampi Virupākṣha Temple. The airport is 75 km east of Virupākṣha. Take from Bellary the National Highway 63 and the State Highway 29.
  • By Train : Hospeṭ Junction Railway Station, served by South Western Railways, is the nearest railway station to reach Hampi Virupākṣha Temple. Hospeṭ Railway Station is just 13 km from Hampi city. From the station take the State Highway 131 north-east.
  • By Road : Hospeṭ town (13 km) is the main entry point to the historic Hampi city in Karnāṭaka. Hampi is 175 km from Bādhāmi, 199 km from Paṭṭadhakal, 161 km from Hubḷi, 124 km from Aihoḷe, and 464 km from Haidherabādh. National Highway 63 from Ankola to Gūṭi passes just close to Hampi city.

Rulers/builders and Time Period




  • The very origin of Hampi’s history as a sacred place revolves around the myths associated with this temple. It believed that this temple has been functioning uninterruptedly ever since its inception in the 7th century AD. That makes this one of the oldest functioning temples in India.
  • The original worship place was only a few separate humble shrines (believed to be as old as 7th century) housing the image of the god and the goddesses. The temple traces its origin in the first half of the fifteenth century; however it was refurbished by Kriṣhṇadevarāya in the 16th century.
  • In the 14th century, Hampi used to make the royal capital and major religious center of the Vijayanagar Empire, one of the greatest empires of the world.
  • The shrine is completely untouched by the destruction that was seen by many monuments in the 16th century.

Deities’ - Goddess

  • The temple is dedicated to Virūpakṣheśhwara (Pampapathi - a form of Lord Shiva) and Lord Viṭṭhala

Architecture Style

  • The progressively diminishing superstructure is made with brick and mortar. All around the exterior of the first tier spots many interesting stucco figures. This east facing giant tower (Gopura) leads you the first courtyard of the temple complex.
  • This pastel painted 9 storied tower with a pair of cow horn like projections on top is the most prominent landmark in Hampi. The lower two tiers of the tower is made of decorated stone work.
  • Virūpākṣha Temple has three towers, where the eastern tower rises to 160 feet with nine tiers. Sprawled in the area of about 26 kms, Hampi is akin to an open-air museum of temples. The hoary ambience of this site gets enhanced with its rugged setting.
  • Just next to your left immediately after you have entered, you can see the unusual triple headed Nandhi (bull statue). Behind this the wall is painted with a large map of Hampi with the main attractions marked. The three storied tower built in 1510 AD is known after its patron, Kriṣhṇadhevarāya , one of the famous kings of the empire. The western end of the south cloister spots a rectangular opening on the floor.
  • A shrine is located underground. A Nandhi is positioned near the opening. Near to it is a huge stone urn with decorations. Towards the end you can see a pair of metal bells and a large leather clad percussion instrument.
  • The mural panel on the central portion of the hall is one of the few remains of this form of Vijayanagara art. Most of it is based on godly themes except the one at the eastern end.

Special Reference to Fine Arts in the temple

  • Several of Śhiva's manifestations, and the ten incarnations of Viṣhṇu are portrayed here, as is the classic scene from Mahabharata depicting Arjuna's shooting the fish device in order to secure Dhraupadhi's hand in marriage.
  • There is also a mural depicting Vidhyāraṇya, the spiritual founder of Vijayanagar in procession. The annual Purandharadhāsa Arādhhana Music festival at Viṭṭhala Temple to celebrate the birth anniversary of the medieval poet-composer, Purandharadhāsa is also held here

Other Spl. Features

  • Virūpākṣha temple is the oldest and the principal temple in Hampi. It is believed that it was the place known as 'Kiṣhkintha' (stated in Rāmāyaṇa ), where Lord Hanumān was born.
  • Situated on the banks of Thungabhadra River, Hampi houses the renowned Virūpākṣha and Viṭṭhala Temples of India.  The murals depict various scenes from the epics of Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhāratha. In the close proximity of Virūpākṣha Temple, one can see numerous ruined manṭapas.

Any Other/Remarks

  • Pampa, who is believed to be the daughter of Brahma, is the divine consort of Virūpākṣha. There is an ornamented shrine that is dedicated to Bhuvaneśhwari.
  • There is also a shrine for Vidhyāraṇya, the spiritual founder of Vijayanagar. In the inner prakāram, there are shrines and pillars that date back to the 12th century.
  • The temple walls are adorned with manifested images of Śhiva and Viṣhṇu.

Special Reference to Performing Arts

  • The Purandharadhāsa Manṭapa is an elevated pavilion found near the Vijaya Viṭṭhala temple.
  • According to a popular folklore, the great saint poet Purandharadhāsa who is known to have composed about 75,000 songs once upon a time, sat here and sang songs in praise of his favourite god, Viṭṭhala.
  • The poet’s songs are sung even today, most popularly in the state of Karnataka. But, since none of his songs were written down, most of them have been lost and only about a thousand odd are known to exist.


View Larger Map


Contact Us