Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Panchanadishwara temple

Name of the Temple

  • Panchanadhīśhwarar Temple


  • Located in Thiruvaiyāru near Thanjāvūr District, Tamilnādu, South India.
How to reach there?
  • By Air: The nearest airport is Thiruchirāppaḷḷi, 55 km. To reach Panchanadhīśhwara temple take the State Highway 22 east.
  • By Train : The nearest railway station is Thiruchirāppaḷḷi Railway Station, 55 km. To reach Panchanadhīśhwara temple take the State Highway 22 east.
  • By Road: Thiruvaiyāru, where Panchanadhīśhwara is located, is connected by the State Highway 22 from Mélaiyūr to Thiruchchirāppalli and 27 from Paluvūr to Thanjāvūr. Also the National Highway 81 from Kāmāchipuram to Sethiathōppu, 83 from Thanjāvūr to Nagapaṭṭinam and 36 from Thanjāvūr to Ozhukarai are close.

Rulers/builders and Time Period

  • There are several inscriptions here relating the temple to Cholas, Pāndyas, Krishna Devarāya and other rulers.
  • Karikāla Chola, Rājarāja Chola & Jāthavarman Sundhara Pāndyan are associated with Thiruvaiyāru.
  • Uttharakailāsam was built by Rajaraja Chola’s wife (late 10th century) who made several endowments . Dakshinakailāsam was renovated by Rajendra Chola's wife.


  • Lord Śhiva called Aiyārappar
  • Panchanadhīśhwarar and Ambāl called Aram Valarttha Nāyaki, Dhharma Samvardhhini

Architecture Style

  • This   grand temple with five prakārams and a 7 tiered Rājagopuram covers a 15 acre area .
  • Somaskandar (Ulagamāvīdhivitankar) is housed in a separate shrine in the 2nd prakāram, adjacent to the Japeśha Mandapam . The Śhivayoga Dakshināmūrthy shrine is also of great significance here.
  • The shrine to Ambāl Dhharmasamvardhhini Amman, has two prakārams by itself.The outer prakāram houses the Dakshina Kailāsam, and the Uttara Kailāsam.
  • To denote the primordial nature of Sound - Nādha Brahmam, there are spots in this temple designed to produce echos. The Śhivalingam here resembles that of Thiruvārūr.


  • The temple is known as Dakshina Kailāsam and this is a Śhaivite shrine of great significance.

Other Special Features

  • A devotee by name Sucharithan was redeemed from untimely death by Śhiva in the form of a column of light (similar to the Mārkandeya legend of Thirukkadavūr&Vaikavūr).
  • Agasthya is said to have obtained his dwarfed physical stature here. Ambal is said to have worshipped Śhiva with 2 measures of grains.

Special Reference to Performing Arts:

  • Muthuswāmi Dīkshithar composed 13 compositions in 8 vibhakthis in praise of Śhrī Thyāgarājeśhwara at Thiruvaiyār ( Listed down)
  • Every year the death anniversary of Saint Thyāgarāja is commemorated on Bahula Panchami (mid-Jan) at his samādhi in Thiruvaiyāru with, appropriately, a music festival, the Thyāgarāja Ārādhanai. The best known Carnātic musicians join lesser known voices in singing the pancharathna kritis, the five compositions that are considered Thyāgarāja's gems or rathnas.
  • The Pancharathna Kritis are:
  • Jagadhānandha Kāraka - Rāga Nāta
  • Dudukugala – Rāga Gaula
  • Sādhinchane - Rāga Ārabhi
  • Kanakana Ruchira - Rāga Varāli
  • Endharo Mahānubhāvulu – Ragam Śhrī


Größere Kartenansicht


Contact Us