Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Dhharmasthala Temple

Name of the Temple

  • Dhharmasthaḷa Manjunātha Swāmi Temple


  • Dhharmasthaḷa is located in a village of the same name in the South Kanara District of Karṇāṭaka, South India.
How to reach there?
  • By Air : Mangaḷūru airport is the nearest Airport, around 77 km away from Dhharmasthhaḷa. From the airport take the National Highway 73 east.
  • By Train : The nearest railway station is located in Puttur, around 50 km away from Dhharmasthhaḷa. From Putthūr take the State Highway 113 north and than the National Highway 73 east.
  • By Road : The Dhharmasthhaḷa Manjunāthha Temple is well connected by roads. It lies near the National Highway 73, 300 km from Bengalūru and 65 km from Mangaḷūru.

Rulers/builders and Time Period

  • 800 Years ago, Dhharmasthaḷa was known as Kuḍuma in Mallarmaḍi.
  • It is believed that about 5 centuries ago a Jain family was blessed by the angels of Dhharmasthaḷa. Later, the Jain people made temples and installed the images of Dharma Dhaivas. This myth relates that to the bringing of the Śhiva Linga from Kadhri. Dharma Dhaivas sent a vassal, Aṇṇappa.
  • The temple of Aṇṇappa faces the idol of Manjunātha in Dhharmasthaḷa. Around the 16th Century, Devarāja Heggaḍe invited Śhrī Vādhirāja Swāmi of Uḍupi to visit the place. The Swāmiji gladly came but refused to accept Bhikṣhā (food offering) because the idol of lord Manjunātha had not been consecrated according to Vedhic rites.
  • Śhrī Heggaḍe then requested the Swāmiji to reconsecrate the Śhivalinga himself. Pleased by the observance of the Vedhic rites and Heggaḍe's charity to all, the Swāmiji named the place Dhharmasthaḷa, the abode of religion and charity.
  • Thus, the roots of charity and religious tolerance established by the Pergaḍes 600 Years ago have been nurtured and strengthened by the Heggaḍe family, Heggaḍe being a derivative from Pergaḍe. And today's Dhharmasthaḷa blossoms with the fruit of this selfless dedication.

Deities’ - Goddess

  • The deities of the temple are Śhiva who is referred to as Manjunātha, Ammanavaru, Chandranātha and the Dharma Dhaivas (guardian spirits of Dharma) namely Kālarahu, Kalarkayi, Kumāraswāmi and Kanyākumari.

Architecture Style

  • The Jain influence can be seen in the 39 ft. statue of Bāhubali, erected in 1980 on the hill near the temple.
  • Opposite the temple is the Manjūṣha Museum which houses a wide rage of objects, including ancient scripts on palm leaves, silver jewellery and religious statuary.

Other Special Features

  • Dhharmasthaḷa is situated on the banks of the river Nethrāvathi which is regarded as a sacred river by the devotees. The water of the Nethrāvathi river is used as the holy water for Dhharmasthaḷa.
  • Thus the pilgrims who come to offer their prayers first bathe in this river to purify their soul before entering into the Manjunātha Temple, Dhharmasthaḷa. Dhharmasthaḷa Manjunātha temple is a temple dedicated to Lord Śhiva who is manifested in the form of lingam.
  • Charity is a way of life here and pilgrims that throng the temple are given free food and lodging for three days

Any Other/Remarks

  • The word "Dharma" traditionally means religion, ritual, duty, righteousness, and alms. It also implies justice, truthfulness, freedom from fear, faith, solace, fulfillment and peace. Dhharmasthaḷa is the perfect embodiment of the word "Dharma" for it displays every shade of meaning with which the word is imbued. The greatness of Dhharmasthaḷa, however is the fact that it has added an active element to "Dharma", such that it touches the lives of people with a transformational directness that is unique.
  • To those that come for worship, Dhharmasthaḷa represents religious tolerance wherein caste, creed and faith of pilgrims are no bars. For here, the Jain Thīrthankara is worshipped on the same consecrated grounds as the native Dhaiva and Lord Manjunātha. The priests are Vaiṣhṇavite Brahmins and the guardian of the temple is Heggaḍe, a Jain by faith. For precise understanding, the priests are Śhivaḷḷi Brahmins who belong to the Vaiṣhṇava sect of Hinduism and the administration is run by a Jain Bunt family called the Pergades.
  • A grand Dīpothsava festival during November and December every year. The riot of colorful lightings is one of the important features of this festival. Dhharmasthaḷa Manjunātha temple has some interesting customs. It is among the first temples to have begun the mass wedding system in which the marriage rites are performed for hundreds of couples and all the expenses are taken care of by the temple.
  • The temple feeds more than 10,000 people on an average everyday and no pilgrim is turned away. Nearby is a 39 ft monolithic statue of Gomateśhwara and a Mahamasthakābhiśheka is performed every 12 years.
  • There are also a few Jain Basadhis, an indication of the co-existence of religions in this famous temple town.


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