Pronunciation and Phonetics

Learning proper pronunciation can be done without much knowledge of phonetics, actually. A basic knowledge, however, helps to make pronunciation clearer and thus facilitates the process of learning how to speak a foreign language properly.

eAmbalam introduces a phonetic chart which is based on Dhevanagari script. The sounds of vowels and consonants and other speech sounds in Sanskrit and the languages which have completely or mostly borrowed from it can be covered with the help of the chart. A few other sounds common to some languages in this group and outside are also put in. Unique sounds of some languages are specified too.

Diacritical marks are used to aid perfect pronunciation. World over, these marks have been created and propagated by scholars to make understanding of the differences in speech sounds in different languages better. Team eAmbalam also has created a phonetic chart which helps even first timers to pronounce words accurately.

Our Phonetic chart is unique, comprehensive, learner friendly and is divided into four columns wherein:
  • In the first column, the letter is written with the associated diacritical mark.
  • In the second column, an example is given in Dhevanagari language containing the letter.
  • In the third column, an example is given in English, which contains the sound closes to the letter or instructions in few cases, to facilitate better understanding.
  • In the fourth column, an audio button is placed with the help of which you can hear the actual pronunciation of the letter.
An open minded approach with the above introduction and guidelines will definitely enable the user to understand the speech sounds of any language and pronounce it like a native, which is eAmbalam’s aim in this exercise.

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
A or a Aḍavu Arise
Ā or ā Ānanda Vast
I or i Indhira Sing
Ī or ī Īśha Meal
U or u U ṣhā Good
Ū or ū Ū rdhhva Boost
R or r Riṣh i Try
Ṛ or ṛ Ni ṛ uti Grr!
Lr or lr   Pronounce L and R together.
E or e Eka Ate
AI or ai Aikya Sight
O or o Ojas Robe
AU or au Audh ā rya Now
A M or am Śhiva m Drum
A HA or aha R ā ma ha Aha!
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English
KA or ka Kavi Car
KHA or kha Khalu Mark -Him
GA or ga Gamana Gut
GHA or gha Ghata Ugh!
Ṅ A or ṅa Tura ṅ ga Ring
CHA or ca Chakra Chart
CHHA or cha Chhandas Branch
JA or ja Jagath Jug
JHA or jha Jhallari Fudge
NYA or nya Gnyana Knew
Ṭ A or ṭ Ṭ anka Top
ṬHA or ṭha Pāṭha Pothole
ḌA or da Ḍ amaruka Dog
Ḍ HA or ḍ ha Mūḍ ha Madhouse
Ṇ A or ṇ a Ga ṇ a Wander
THA or tha Thanu Health
THHA or thha Athha Theater
DHA or dha Dha śha This
DHHA or dhha Dhhana m Dha with an additional H sound
NA or na Namask ā raha Nut
PA or pa   Path ā ka Past
PHA or pha Phala m P with a H sound
BA or ba Bandhhu Ball
BHA or bha Bhadra Abhor
MA or ma Manas Money
YA or ya Yama Yummy
RA or ra Rajas Rub
LA or la Lath ā Lust
VA or WA, va /wa A śh va or A śhwa Water/Valour
ŚHA or śha Śhakthi Shutter
ṢHA or ṣ ha Ṣh a ṇ mukha Shunt
SA or sa Sarasvatī Sun
HA or ha Hari Hum
Ḷ A or ḷ a Ar āḷ a Bold
KṢHA or k ṣ ha Ak ṣh i Try to pronounce Ka, Sa & Ha – all at one time.
Extra Vowels in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada & Malayalam Scripts    
É or é Éṇi Angel
Ō or ō Ō m Ō M
ZHA Exclusive to Tamil & Malayalam Fold the tip of your tongue backwards and try to pronounce it with the aid of the audio button.
Syllable Usage in Sanskrit Usage in English

Lepakshi temple

Name of the Temple

  • Lépākṣhi Temple


  • Lépākṣhi village, 114 kms from Ananthapur city, Āndhrapradeśh.
How to reach there?
  • By air : Thirupathi Airport is 240 km away. From there take the National Highway 71 heading west to reach Lépākṣhi. Bengalūru International Airport is around 100 km away. From the airport take the National Highway 7 north to reach Lépākṣhi.
  • By train : The Hindhupur railway station in Hindhupur is the closest railway station, around 13 km away. From the railway station take the Lépākṣhi road heading east to reach Lépākṣhi.
  • By road : Lépākṣhi is connected by the Bengalūru Haidherabādh Highway 7. The distance to Haidherabādh is 480 km and 120 km to Bengalūru.

Rulers/builders and Time Period

  • This Vīrabhhadra Temple at Lépākṣhi was built in the mid-16th century by Vīraṇṇa and Virupaṇṇa, Vijayanagara governors of Penukonḍa.


  • Lépākṣhi consists of three shrines dedicated to Śhiva, Viṣhṇu and 'Vīrabhhadhra',' and 'Dhurgā', of which the Vīrabhhadhra temple is the most important.

Architecture Style

  • The temple is divided into three parts - the 'Mukha Manṭapa', (also called 'Nithya Manṭapa' or 'Ranga Manṭapa'), the 'Arthha Manṭapa' and 'Garbhha Gruha', and the 'Kalyana Mandapa', with 38 carved monolithic pillars in grey sandstone is unfinished.
  • These three form a triangle with a common Manṭapam. The Kalyāṇa Manṭapam is a standing monument to the exuberance of Vijayanagar art but it is left unfinished.
  • The temple has a central pavilion, embracing all the three shrines. This pavilion is further connected with an intermediary hall and a hall for ritual dance. A large open court that is accessible from the east surrounds the main hall.
  • Lépākṣhi Temple perhaps houses the largest monolithic structure of Nāgalinga in India.
  • Another exquisite statue of Lord Ganeśha captures the attention of everyone, especially when people enter the second interior court.
  • On the whole the temple is a brilliant example of the Vijayanagar style of architecture.

Special Features

  • There are many specialties in this temple like rock chain, Vāsthu Puruṣha image, Padhmini race Lady, Hanging Pillar , Dhurgā Pādham, Lépākṣhi saree designs etc.
  • On the walls of this temple, there are several stories like Mahābhāratha, Rāmāyaṇa sculpted. Also on the roof, there are so many beautiful paintings done by natural colour mixtures.
  • It contains some of the finest sculpture of the period and has the earliest preserved cycle of mural paintings in the Vijayanagara style. 

Any Other/Remarks

  • One more famous spot in this temple is "Eyes of Virūpākṣhaṇṇa". As history says, due to king's misunderstanding with this temple builder, king ordered to blind him. Hearing this, the builder plucked his own eyes and threw them at the temple walls. Till date one can find those blood scars on that particular wall.

Special Reference to Performing Arts

  • The temple is surrounded on all sides by an outer enclosure.
  • A second inner enclosure contains the main portion of the temple. Its finest parts are the 'Nātya' (Dancing) and 'Ardhha' (worship) Manṭapams.
  • The former is decorated with superbly sculptured pillars on, which are carved life-size representations of musicians and dancers in various poses displaying spirit and vigor.
  • The best specimens of the Vijayanagar style of sculpture and mural paintings are found in the Nātya and Kalyāṇa Manṭapams (dance and wedding halls). These sculptures depict Purāṇic episodes like those of 'Ananthaśhayana', 'Datthāthreya', 'Chathurmukha Brahma', 'Thumburu', 'Nāradha' and 'Rambhā'.
  • The interiors boast of impressive sculptures in half-relief on the granite pillars. The carvings represent dancers, drummers and divine musicians. Here, you can see Lord Brahma playing drums, celestial nymph Rambhā dancing and Lord Śhiva engaged in 'Ānandha Thānḍava'.
  • Lépākṣhi Temple has a colossal painting of Vīrabhadra in the central hall. In the 'Hall of Dance', one can trace eight panels, depicting Purāṇic legends on the ceiling. Most of the paintings and murals have been devastated by the ravages of times.
  • Lépākṣhi is a notable store of expertise, which is on the brink of extinction. In concise terms, the temple is a work of art that certainly deserves a visit.


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